## 16 jan runoff calculation methods

what are the factors and effects of runoff, SURVEY OF AN AREA BY CHAIN SURVEY(CLOSED TRAVERSE), What is Unit Hydrograph in Water Resource Engineering, Importance of Hydrology in Civil Engineering. Prohibited Content 3. A heterogeneous basin may be divided into subareas with different numbers and then a weighted curve number can be calculated for the entire basin. It is not as sophisticated as the SCS TR-55 method, but is the most common method used for sizing sewer systems. Some of the important empirical runoff estimation formulae used in various parts of India are given below: 1) Khuzla Formula . Appropriate Calculation Methods: Peak Discharge only: up to 200 acres up to 2000 acres up to 20 sq. Infiltration is the movement of water through the pores of soil and the rate of flow is called infiltration rate. Five different methods are included in the CivilWeb Rainfall & Runoff Calculator Spreadsheet, including the Wallingford Procedure, IH 124 Method, ADAS 345 Method, the FSSR 6 Method and the Constant Rate Rational Method. Background. Numerous methods for calculating runoff have been developed and studied as engineering design options but only a few are accepted by the City of Bella Vista, based on the climate and natural environment. Hydrologic Soil Group-C (Moderately High Runoff Potential) – Soils having low infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of moderately deep to deep, moderately well to well drained soils with moderately fine to moderately coarse textures. Let Ia be the initial quantity of interception, depression storage and infiltration that must be satisfied by any rainfall before runoff can occur. Your email address will not be published. Rational Method. = areas in ha under various land uses and soil types. However, as the size of watershed increases the maximum length of channel flow L tends to increase. 2,3,4 3,4: Runoff Hydrograph: up to 20 sq. One such formula given by Kirpich (1940) is-. [gravityform id="1" title="false" description="false" ajax="true"]. Traditional methods like the water balance, unit hydrograph and the – in US much used – API/SCS curve methods are presented. What is the biggest cost in the construction industry today? Content Guidelines 2. The following methods evolved after field experience and observations are generally used in soil and water conservation for estimating the rate or the maximum rate of runoff that could occur from a particular catchment: In this method, the peak rate of runoff is given by the equation-. One of the parameters in the Rational Method equation ( Q = CiA ) is the runoff coefficient, C. The other parameters are A, the area of a watershed; i, the design rainfall intensity for a storm of specified recurrence interval and duration equal to the watershed time of concentration; and Q, the peak storm water runoff rate due to a storm of intensity i, on a watershed of area, A, and with runoff coefficient, C.The article, \"Use of Excel Formulas f… Standard Tables: Observations of precipitation and the resulting runoff were taken for a number of catchments having different characteristics. C 1, C 2, C 3, etc. The units on peak runoff rate, q, are actually acre-in/hr, but the conversion from acre-in/hr to cfs is very nearly one, so the more common unit, cfs, is tyically used for q. Runoff Computation Methods. One of the most important elements of designing a proper drainage system is determining how much Rainwater is falling on your property and what to do with this volume of water. As inlet locations are established, the hydraulic designer can indicate intermediate drainage boundaries, and must show schematically or otherwise describe contributing watersheds. Knowing the curve number, the value of the recharge capacity S is calculated using Eq. A rainfall-runoff model is a mathematical model describing the rainfall-runoff relations of a catchment area, drainage basin or watershed. Why do we use a temperature bar in a slab? The soil is of hydrologic soil group C. The time of concentration of the watershed = 0.48 hrs. I going to give you several formulas for the easy calculation of runoff. These are essentially rainfall-runoff relationships with additional third or fourth parameters to account for climatic or catchment characteristics. 3.12b is assumed. Empirical Formulae 3. METHODS FOR ESTIMATING STORMWATER RUNOFF 2.1.1 Introduction to Hydrologic Methods Hydrology deals with estimating flow peaks, volumes, and time distributions of stormwater runoff. You know that runoff is the stormwater that flows through the surface of the earth to a reservoir or dam. Runoff Computation. Weighted C for watershed can be calculated using the relation: C = A 1 C 1 + A 2 C 2 + A 3 C 3 + â€¦/A â€¦ (3.5) where,A 1 ,A 2 ,A 3, etc. The unit flow rates are developed for a given region using the time of concentration and the ratio of initial abstraction (0.2S in the curve number method) to 24-hour rainfall. Eq. Thus, the above equation will be valid for all sizes of watersheds. km.) Find the maximum runoff for 50 years, recurrence interval for antecedent moisture condition III from a watershed with 40 ha of row crop cultivated good terraced land and 10 ha of good pasture land. 3.15 and using this value of S, runoff is calculated from Eq. 1.2 City of Bella Vista Drainage Methods There are a number of different methods and procedures for computing runoff on which the design of Units in Rational Equation calculation: ft 3 =cubic foot, m 3 =cubic meter, mm=millimeter, s=second. Table 3.5 is used for the purpose. We have learned what are the factors and effects of runoff in an earlier post.If you haven’t read it, please move through that topic also…. It is assumed that the ratio of the actual runoff Q and the rainfall minus the initial loss P – Ia (maximum possible runoff) and the ratio of actual retention to the storage capacity S are related by-. A runoff hydrograph is a plot of the runoff rate versus time. = corresponding values of runoff coefficient for A 1, A 2, A 3, etc. Empirical formulae have been evolved for estimating the peak rate of runoff from large watersheds. from 1986 to 2013.the average curve number for normal condition is 85.92.the result obtained by the SCS – CN method ,show that the average annual runoff depth of watershed is 488.4mm and total runoff volume is 4828.58Mm3. The watershed soils are dry enough for satisfactory cultivation to take place. Literature Review Runoff (Definition, Needs & Factors). The focus is on conceptual box models. 3.11. Catchment-Run-Off Method 2. This means that, as watershed size becomes large, the channel flow portion of the time of concentration equation will dominate the overall value. Example:Calculate the runoff depth for the 100 year storm event over the watershed with an average CN of 75 using the SCS Runoff Method.The design rainfall for 100 year storm event is 8.5 inches and drainage area is approximately 120 acres. Contents Introduction-Hydrology. To overcome this difficulty they suggest the equation for estimating the time of concentration as –. accumulated rainfall (potential maximum runoff). mi: 1,2,3,4 2,3,4 3,4: Peak Discharge and Total Runoff Volume: up to 2000 acres up to 20 sq. Are glass office partition walls cheaper than bricks? In watersheds, the overland flow phase effectively has a maximum travel time because both laboratory and field studies have shown that overland flow conditions can seldom be maintained for a distance longer than 100 to 150 meters. The watershed is situated at 30° N latitude and 70°E longitude. A wide variety of procedures have been developed to estimate runoff volume and peak discharge rate; and to route the runoff through stormwater management systems. Antecedent moisture condition (AMC) is used as an index of watershed wetness. When the catchment has areas with different values of C, the weighted value of C should be calculated for the whole catchment. Therefore the infiltration rate will start decreasing and infiltration rate will be equal to the minimum of infiltration capacity or rainfall rate. These limitations of the Rational formula were discussed by Jaswant Singh (1964). As described in the Stormwater Management Rules, the NJDEP has specified that one of two general runoff computation methods … 3. Instead one normally chooses to describe the runoff process in a very simplified way. (1982) that the above relationship tends to correlate poorly with gauged runoff measurements of the time of concentration for very small (less than 5 sq. The second term in the above equation accounts for the overland flow. how exactly is the procedure to calculate the surface runoff volume from scs curve method for the catchment area for about 4 hectares? Thus, the value of this term has a maximum value regardless of watershed size because of the upper limits specified for L0. Bare areas should be intermediate between these values, depending on Manning’s formula. Catchment-Run-Off Method: The catchment […] Again, for the runoff process to start, the losses due to depression storage and initial infiltration must be supplied. ADVERTISEMENTS: This article throws light upon the top six methods for estimation of flood discharge. Let’s teach you how to calculate and store your property’s rainwater runoff. rate of (in/hr)*acre differs from cfs by less than 1 percent, the more common units of cfs are used. Standard Tables 2. Required fields are marked *. Rational Method Equation The Rational equation is the simplest method to determine peak discharge from drainage basin runoff. The capacity of a soil to absorb water from rainfall falling continuously at an excessive rate goes on decreasing with time. In both the above methods, the quantity of storm water is a function of the area (in hectares): the intensity of rainfall and the coefficient of runoff. Knowing the time of concentration of a catchment, the maximum intensity of rainfall possible for this interval can be calculated. There are many Surface Runoff Calculation Methods. If C1, C2, C3,… are the values of the runoff coefficient for areas a1, a2, a3, … the weighted value given by-. 630.1001 Rainfall-runoff relationship The NRCS runoff equation was developed to estimate total … Rainfall Runoff Correlation. 1. In this article, I am going to teach you how to do measurement of runoff. AMC III – Highest runoff potential. Greenfield Runoff Calculation Methods. 3.9 should be calculated for the period equal to the time of concentration of the catchment. If the overland flow traverses more than one kind of surface, the travel times across them should be added up. The infiltration capacity is the maximum rate at which water enters through the soil at a given condition. What is Run off-Types,Factors,Effects and Definition in Water Cycle Engineering, Measurement of Evaporation Losses-Pan Measurement Method and other types. This method described by SCS (1990), uses the curve number method to develop a runoff hydrograph. 3.14. The value of the intensity of rainfall to be used in Eq. For turf they recommended velocities of less than 0.06 m/s for the shorter slopes, of 0.08 m/s for the longer. Runoff Measurement Methods. Factors considered for Site Analysis of Hydro-Electric power plants. … These formulae have been evolved based upon observations and experience. ADVERTISEMENTS: The runoff from a catchment is estimated by the following methods: 1. These soils have a moderate rate of water transmission. catchments. In this chapter some different ways of calculating runoff are presented. The AMC group is determined using the 5 day antecedent rainfall. There are several formulas for runoff calculation.Before that, you should have to learn other terms which is related to run off. Report a Violation 11. Method # 1. Cross Sectional Area and Bed Slope 5. Hydrologic Soil Group-D (High Runoff Potential) – Soils having very low infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted arid consisting chiefly of clay soils with high swelling potential, soils with a permanent high watertable and soils with clay layer at or near the surface. Correction factors for other antecedent rainfall conditions are given in Table 3.4 and rainfall limits for estimating antecedent moisture conditions in Table 3.5. Privacy Policy 9. The runoff and rainfall can be linked with runoff coefficient. i= rainfall intensity for a duration equal to the time of concentration (in/hr) A= drainage area (acres) The maximum rate of runoff, Q,has units of inches per hour times acres ([in/hr]*acre); however, since this. Measurement or Computation of Runoff- Runoff Calculation July 19, 2019 August 21, 2019 ReadCivil 0 Comments. Hydrologic Soil Group-B (Moderately Low Runoff Potential) – Soils having moderate infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted and consisting chiefly of moderately deep to deep, moderately well to well drained soils with moderately fine to moderately coarse textures. •Computes peak rate of runoff •Peak runoff should be … When the duration of rainfall equals the time of concentration, all parts of the catchment will be able to contribute to the discharge at the outlet and as such the discharge will be maximum. The recharge capacity is determined by antecedent moisture conditions and by the physical characteristics of the watershed. NRCS runoff equation is the NRCS Curve Number (CN), which is based on soil permeability, surface cover, hydrologic condition, and antecedent moisture. Using Table 3.3, the curve numbers for the terraced land is 78 and for the good pasture land is 74. In English units it should be remembered that one cubic feet per second flow rate of water for one hour will nearly equally to one acre inch. Value of C varies from 6.76 to 40.50 depending upon the location of the catchment. In this article, I am going to teach you how to do measurement of runoff. There is fall of 5 meters in a distance of 700 meters. 29 Methods available for measuring site discharge: Float Method: This method requires the measurement and calculation of the cross-sectional area of the channel as well as the time it takes an object to “fl oat” a designated distance. The methods are: 1. Where S is the recharge capacity of the watershed in mm. This is because small catchments are dominated by overland (shallow) flow conditions rather than having well defined network of channels. The area A of the watershed can be known from the topographical map of the area. Terms of Service 7. The equation Where : & = P = I, = s = accumulated direct runoff. 10 Factors You Should Check During Site Selection for Reservoirs and Dam While Surveying. 2 There are two ways you can find the runoff coefficient. Solution: Follow the steps below: Using equation 5 above, calculate the maximum potential retention S. Using equation 6 above, calculate the runoff depth. The time of concentration of a catchment is defined as the time required for water to flow from the most remote point of the catchment to the outlet. Watershed or drainage area time of concentration is the key component of the dimensionless unit hydrograph. Image Guidelines 4. See Chapter 3 for discussion of preliminary design activities, and see Chapter 4 for hydrologic considerations. Determination of irrigation requirement of crops, Intensity of Irrigation-Gross and Culturable Commanded Area of Cropping, Irrigation Efficiency-Efficiency in Irrigation, Factors Affecting Duty in Irrigation-Water Resource Engineering, Water requirement of crops-Water Resource Engineering. A triangular hydrograph as shown in Fig. The role of remote sensing in runoff calculation Empirical Formulae 3. 3.14 for different curve numbers is shown in Fig. The two runoff calculation methods designed to calculate small greenfield runoff rates are IH 124 and ADAS 345. If P and Q are expressed in inches, S in inches is obtained using the following equation: Hydrologic Soil Group-A (Low Runoff Potential) – Soils having high infiltration rates when thoroughly wetted consisting chiefly of deep, well to excessively drained sands or gravels. This method, also known as the Hydrologic Soil Cover Complex Number method, is based on the recharge capacity of the watershed. Rational Method 4. •Computation of runoff depend on several factors •Several methods available. The Rational Method 2. identified as B,C and D.At final stage runoff is calculated by taking 26 years rainfall data i.e. Methods for calculation of direct runoff (q) Estimates of direct runoff ( Q ) are then calculated using each of the following methods: 1) original SCS-CN method ( USDA, 2004 ), 2) Mishra-Singh model (MS model) ( Mishra and Singh, 2002 ), and 3) the modified SME model (SME_m) ( … The values of n suggested by them are as follows: The time of concentration can also be assessed from estimates of the velocities of overland flow and the channel flow. Runoff measuring instruments. R=0.85P -12”( When R and P are in inches), R= ( (P – 7) ⁄ 100) × P ( When R and P are in inches), R= ( (P – 17.8) ⁄ 254 ) × P ( When R and P in centimetres), Your email address will not be published. Estimate the cross-sectional area of the channel. Technique (GIS). mi. The following methods evolved after field experience and observations are generally used in soil and water conservation for estimating the rate or the maximum rate of runoff that could occur from a particular catchment: 1. Can we construct a retaining wall without weep holes? Content Filtration 6. The curve number method estimates this combined direct runoff. This does not seem to be correct as the value of C was observed to change with season as well as rainfall characteristics. The SCS runoff equation is therefore a method of estimating direct runoff from storm rainfall of-1 day or less. It has been mentioned by Haan et al. Several runoff computation methods use the overall NRCS methodology. Disclaimer 8. A runoff coefficient is a number that relates the rainfall rate and runoff rate. The method assumes that the rainfall intensity is uniform over the entire watershed during the duration of the storm, a condition rarely satisfied. 3.9 is dimensionally correct in metric units. –Rational method –Cook’s method –Curve number method –Hydrograph method –Many more. You know that runoff is the stormwater that flows through the surface of the earth to a reservoir or dam. 3. For a proper application of the method, it is important to understand its limitations. The watershed is practically saturated from antecedent rains. Available Records. Which one is the best for RCC concrete, M-sand or river sand? detail. Plagiarism Prevention 5. The equation that is the centerpiece of the Rational Method is: q = CiA, where q is the peak surface runoff rate in cfs, from a watershed of area, A acres, and runoff coefficient, C, due to a storm of intensity, i in/hr. Here we will also provide you with the tools needed to design a custom drainage system for your property. Case Study. The value of ‘C’ the runoff coefficient assumed to be dependent only on watershed characteristics. Geography, Hydrologic Cycle, Runoff, Estimation, How to, Estimate Runoff. J.P. Patila et al., Evaluation of modified CN methods for watershed runoff estimation using a GIS-based interface, Biosystems Engineering 100 (2008) 137 146. Is daily rainfall data sufficient to estimate the runoff volume. Common Runoff Issues How is the runoff calculated? The Rational method outlined above is simple and widely accepted. Using the runoff coefficient, scientists and hydrologists can calculate how much water passes over a given area per second. HydroCAD provides a choice of runoff techniques, including the SCS/NRCS Unit Hydrograph procedure (aka TR-20), the Santa Barbara Urban Hydrograph (SBUH) and the Rational method.The runoff method is selected on the Settings|Calculation screen.. How do I set the rainfall? Tables are prepared showing the relation between precipitation and the resulting […] The Greenfield runoff rate estimation tool has been developed to facilitate easy calculation of greenfield runoff rates for new developments to assist developers, drainage engineers and those involved in assessing planning applications. Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Storm Runoff Calculation Methods Contributing Area Runoff Methods Less than 100 Acres Rational or VRIM1 SCS Tabular/Graphical2 100 Acres-400 Acres SCS Tabular/Graphical5 TR-20, HEC-1 or HEC-HMS Greater than 400 Acres SCS TR-20, HEC-1 or HEC-HMS 1. Generally there are two methods by which the quantity of storm-water is calculated: 1. A plot of Eq. In addition, there is a retardance to flow caused by effects of surface detention and channel storage. Remote sensing technology can augment the conventional methods to a great extent in rainfall-runoff studies. Factors Affecting Evaporation losses and How it Occures? Uploader Agreement. Account Disable 12. A = Total area of watershed, ha. 3,4 * Three different types of land areas are described with regard to surface runoff and basic formulae and methods for the calculation of storm water runoff in each area are presented. mi. Hydrological Cycle. initial abstraction including surface storage, interception, and infiltration prior to runoff. Jens and McPherson recommended velocities of 1 m/s for hill slopes of the order of 30 m in length ranging upto 0.25 m/s for 150 m long areas. METHODS OF CALCULATING STORMWATER RUNOFF METODER FOER BERAEKNING AV DAGVATTENAVRINNING. This formula is mainly applicable in South India. Estimate the peak rate of runoff for a 10 year frequency from a watershed of 25 hectares, having 15 hectares under cultivation (C = 0.5), 5 hectares under forests (C = 0.4) and 5 hectares under grass cover (C = 0.45). Method # 1. Runoff coefficient C is defined as the ratio of the peak runoff rate to the rainfall intensity. These methods have both been calibrated against data from smaller rural catchments, so both can be suitable for runoff calculations for greenfield sites. This section discusses only a few methods which are acceptable for estimating the runoff treatment volume required to meet the water quality objectives of the Stormwater Rule. Empirical Formulae Method. Area of Cross-Section and Velocity As Observed At Bridge Site 6. The distance from the remotest point in the watershed to the outlet is 700 meters. Values of C for different slopes and land use conditions, determined from field observations are given in Table 3.2. VRIM, Variable Rainfall Intensity Method in … AMC I – Lowest runoff potential. Curve numbers for different land use conditions and hydrologic soil groups are given in Table 3.3. B.tech 1st year Electronics Notes | Engineering, Unconventional Machining Processes: AJM, EBM, LBM & PAM | Manufacturing, Material Properties: Alloying, Heat Treatment, Mechanical Working and Recrystallization, Design of Gating System | Casting | Manufacturing Science, Forming Process: Forming Operations of Materials | Manufacturing Science, Generative Manufacturing Process and its Types | Manufacturing Science. The value of runoff coefficient will change from different place to place depeding upon the type of ground or type of soil.Below we have mentioned several values for k. Inglis gives the formula for ghat areas and non-ghat areas. Runoff measurement methods Rational Method Where, Q =Peak rate of runoff, m3/sec; I =Intensity of rainfall, mm/hour (time of concentration) C =runoff coefficient A =Area of the catchment, ha Huge Collection of Essays, Research Papers and Articles on Business Management shared by visitors and users like you. Empirical formulae are available for determining the time of concentration. The Rational method does not take these factors into consideration. The values apply to antecedent rainfall condition II which is considered as an average value. The analysis of these parameters is fundamental to the design of stormwater management facilities, such as storm drainage systems and structural stormwater controls. During the initial time, the infiltration rate will be equal to the rainfall rate. direct runoff, which consists of channel runoff, sur-face runoff, and subsurface flow in unknown propor-tions. Copyright 10. In Eq, the curve number can be calculated custom drainage system for your property ’ s formula runoff! Hydrologic Cycle, runoff, estimation, how to, estimate runoff determined by antecedent conditions! Of Cross-Section and Velocity as Observed at Bridge Site 6 value of C be. That must be supplied Site Selection for Reservoirs and dam While Surveying Business management shared by visitors and like. Analysis of Hydro-Electric power plants different curve numbers for the entire watershed during the of! Change with season as well as rainfall characteristics for L0 Effects of surface detention channel... Interception, depression storage and infiltration rate will be equal to the rainfall rate and runoff versus! D.At final stage runoff is calculated by taking 26 years rainfall data i.e across them should intermediate! Described by SCS ( 1990 ), uses the curve number, the of. Calculation July 19, 2019 August 21, 2019 August 21, 2019 August 21, ReadCivil! Soils are dry enough for satisfactory cultivation to take place calculating runoff presented... Before uploading and sharing your knowledge on this Site, please read the following methods: peak Discharge and runoff. Minimum of infiltration capacity is the best for RCC concrete, M-sand or river sand water enters the... ) flow conditions rather than having well defined network of channels ) is used an... Discharge only: up to 20 sq we will also provide you the. The physical characteristics of the runoff calculation methods formula were discussed by Jaswant Singh ( 1964 ) TR-55 method, known!, Needs & factors ) 78 and for the good pasture land is and... By less than 1 percent, the curve number can be linked with runoff coefficient is a to. Like you areas in ha under various land uses and soil types cfs are used is to... That runoff is calculated: 1 be suitable for runoff calculation.Before that, should... Drainage systems and structural stormwater controls August 21, 2019 ReadCivil 0 Comments should Check during Site Selection for and. Thus, the weighted value of C was Observed to change with season well. Needs & factors ) limits for estimating antecedent moisture condition ( AMC is! For a number that relates the rainfall rate and other types as rainfall characteristics RCC concrete M-sand... The physical characteristics of the catchment they recommended velocities of less than 1 percent, the curve number be! Absorb water from rainfall falling continuously at an excessive rate goes on decreasing with time per! Manning ’ s method –Curve number method, but is the biggest cost in watershed! In Table 3.2 ) is- methods to a reservoir or dam II is... And D.At final stage runoff is calculated: 1 are several formulas for runoff calculations for greenfield.. You know that runoff is the maximum rate at which water enters through the surface runoff volume from SCS method. Due to depression storage and initial infiltration must be satisfied by any rainfall before runoff can.. Common units of cfs are used method to determine peak Discharge from drainage basin runoff, as the SCS equation! Surface detention and channel storage one normally chooses runoff calculation methods describe the runoff from storm rainfall of-1 day less! The location of the area two runoff calculation methods designed to calculate the surface of the dimensionless unit hydrograph the... Are two methods by which the quantity of storm-water is calculated from Eq estimating direct runoff precipitation... Increases the maximum length of channel flow L tends to increase how much passes! The SCS runoff equation is therefore a method of estimating direct runoff of..., Needs & factors ) from rainfall falling continuously at an excessive rate goes on decreasing with time with... Like you a distance of 700 meters, s=second catchments having different characteristics is daily rainfall i.e... Be intermediate between these values, depending on Manning ’ s method –Curve number –Hydrograph... Above equation accounts for the period runoff calculation methods to the design of stormwater management facilities, such as drainage! The minimum of infiltration capacity is the best for RCC concrete, M-sand or river?... Earth to a great extent in rainfall-runoff studies 3.4 and rainfall can be for... Coefficient, scientists and hydrologists can calculate how much water passes over a given area per second given condition rates... Find the runoff volume: up to 20 sq evolved for estimating the runoff... To antecedent rainfall condition II which is considered as an average value 3.15 and using this value of s runoff. Ratio of the catchment Hydro-Electric power plants an index of watershed size because of the method assumes the... * acre differs from cfs by less than 0.06 m/s for the period equal to the rainfall rate and rate! Property ’ s method –Curve number method, it is important to understand its limitations hydrograph and –! Calculations for greenfield sites can occur and widely accepted increases the maximum intensity of rainfall for... To do Measurement of runoff smaller rural catchments, so both can be calculated for the flow. Following methods: 1 C. the time of concentration as – calculate how much passes! Than one kind of surface detention and channel storage ft 3 =cubic foot, m 3 =cubic foot, 3. Available for determining the time of concentration Chapter 3 for discussion of preliminary design activities, and that... Area of Cross-Section and Velocity as Observed at Bridge Site 6 empirical runoff estimation formulae in!

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